Thursday, December 12, 2019
Drawing from the preceding examples Essay This article examines how certain characteristics Off mediator, that is, a mediators information about the disputants and a mediators bias toward hem, affect the success Of mediation Of international conflicts. Drawing a conceptual distinction between absolute and relative bias and measuring the type of information that is relevant for mediation success, demonstrate that both the degree of bias a mediator holds toward the disputants and the degree of information a mediator has about the disputants are significant predictors of mediation success. Mediation of international conflicts by third parties is as old and common as international conflict itself. Throughout history, belligerents have repeatedly turned to the aid of third parties to help them terminate their hostilities. In some instances, mediation serves as a crucial catalyst by providing the opportunity for the belligerents to reach a negotiated settlement, such as the Dayton Accord that ended the war in Bosnia in 1995 (Holbrook 1998), while in other cases it fails to produce a successful outcome, such as the Camp David negotiation between Israel and the Palestinians in 2000 (Ross 2005). Why do some mediation activities produce peaceful outcomes while others fail to achieve success? In this study, I assess how certain characteristics of a mediator, that is, a mediators information about the disputants and a mediators bias towards them, affect he success of mediation of international conflicts. L Although mediation of international disputes is a common practice, our theoretical understanding Of mediation outcomes is still weak. One off-debated factor that is argued to exert considerable influence on mediation outcomes is mediator bias (Outfall 1975; Smith 1994; Carnival and Radar 1996). Are biased mediators more effective than unbiased ones? Under what conditions are biased mediators likely to deliver peace? There is no scholarly consensus on whether and how mediator bias influences the effectiveness of mediation of international disputes (Glibber 996), Therefore, there is ample room for improvement in our theoretical understanding of mediation outcomes. The fact that only 48 percent of mediations of international conflict between 1945 and 1995 produced A previous version of this paper Vass presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, San Diego, California, March 2006 and the Annual Meeting of Peace Science Society (International), Columbus, Ohio, November 2006. Thank Ashley Leeds, Finley and Ernie Budgerigars, Andrew Kiddy, Michael Mattes, Brian Phillips, Bill Reed, Randy Stevenson, Richard Stool and three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions. Data can be found at http://DVD. IQ. Harvard. Due/DVD/DVD/sis and at http://www. Sanest. Org/ data_archive/. In this study, mediation success refers to the cessation of hostilities between the disputants by the conclusion of a ceasefire agreement or a peace treaty. 2008 International Studies Association. Published by Blackwell Publishing, 350 Main street, Malden, MA 02148, LISA, and 9600 Garrisoning Road, Oxford OX SQ , UK . Electronic cop y available at: http://USSR. Com/abstract=ASSESS 26 Information, Bias, and Mediation Success agreements that resulted in peace (at least in the short term) creates an additional impetus for further scholarly research on mediation outcomes. If it is our goal to increase the Success rate Of mediation activities in the international system, eve need to develop a more compelling theory of mediation outcomes. In this regard, I seek to contribute to our understanding Of mediation outcomes by assessing how a mediators bias and information about the disputants contribute to the likelihood Of mediation success. 3 identify two major reasons why the role of a mediators bias in mediation success is still a debated issue in the literature. First, past mediation studies suffer either from the inability to generalize empirical findings that are based on few case studies or inconclusive empirical results that are based on crude operational measures off mediators bias. To remedy this situation, first establish a conceptual distinction between what I call absolute and relative bias, contend that the degree of bias a mediator has toward one of the disputants depends not only on the relationship between the mediator and the disputant but also on the mediators relationship with the other disputant. Al this relative bias. To create a valid and reliable estimator to bias, construct an additive index of relative bias based on a mediators conflict history, trading relationship, and alliance ties with both of the disputants. To my knowledge, this is the first scholarly attempt to distinguish relative bias from absolute bias and to design a multidimensional measure of mediator bias that is unique to each dispute. Rather than assigning a generic biased or unbiased label to mediators of international conflict, I measure a mediators bias toward the disputants of a particular dispute in various dimensions. A second source of the existing disagreement on the effect of a mediators bias on mediation outcomes is related to what we mean by mediation. Scholars often use mediation to refer to a wide range of third part/ activities that cover the least intrusive mediation styles,4 such as information provision, as well as the most intrusive mediation styles, such as punishments to deter further violence. Given the Wide diversity Of activities that are considered mediation, it is theoretically plausible that mediator bias might be a hindrance for some types Of mediation activities While facilitating the success Of Others. S Therefore, a more appropriate way to investigate the role of bias in mediation outcomes is to distinguish between different types of mediation activities. In this paper, focus on one particular type of mediation activity, information provision strategies, and examine the role of bias as it pertains to this particular form of mediation strategy. Whose to focus on information provision, as it is the most commonly used mediation strategy, yet there is no scholarly consensus on its effectiveness 2 The percentage of success is calculated using the International Conflict Management Dataset (Overstretch 1999). One might argue that an exclusive focus on the type of mediators to understand mediation outcomes might obscure our Longstanding of the topic, as mediation outcomes are also influenced by factors other than mediator characteristics. I agree that other factors, such as the characteristics of disputes and / or disputants, might influence mediation outcomes?although there is no consensus as to how these variables affect mediation outcomes. However, believe that there is more value-added in examining the characteristics of mediators to understand mediation outcomes than in focusing on the nature Of disputes or disputants. The reason is that the latter factors are usually fixed. There is not much we can do to change the nature of disputes or disputants. On the Other hand, the decision to mediate a given international crisis requires an active choice, and such choices are manipulate. International actors can choose who should mediate a given international crisis. If we improve our understanding of what kinds of mediators are good at facilitating settlements between the disputants, we may be able to provide some useful insights that will increase the likelihood that policy makers make more optimal choices in mediation of international conflicts. Use mediation tactic, mediation activity, mediation style, and mediation strategy interchangeably. Smith (1994) called this issue to our attention, and only recently empirical studies to mediation have started establishing distinctions in terms to different mediation styles and their relative effectiveness in bringing peace. For example, see Beardsley, Quinn, Bias, and Wildlife (2006). Electronic copy available at: http://USSR. Com/abstract=1456757 27 in facilitating peace. Different from othe r studies of mediation that evaluate the effectiveness of information provision strategies, this study recognizes hat the kind Of information a mediator has about the disputants matters when evaluating the effectiveness of information provision. Drawing upon the bargaining theory Of war, I contend that a mediator needs to have information about the resolve and/or military capabilities of the disputants to be able to help them reduce the uncertainty responsible for bargaining failures. My measure of information reflects this observation. Develop a new measure of information based on a mediators diplomatic representation in the disputants territory, its trading relationship, and its institutionalized military alliance ties tit the disputants. Different from past studies that evaluate the effectiveness of mediation strategies, this study provides a direct evaluation of the effect of relevant information a mediator has about the disputants on mediation success, By using a measure that is designed to capture a mediators ability to elicit relevant information about the disputants, this study sheds some light on the debate over the effectiveness of information provision strategies in The findings of this research suggest that biased mediators are more likely to deliver successful mediation outcomes than unbiased ones. The higher the agree of bias a mediator has toward one of the disputants, the higher is the likelihood of mediation success. Similarly, find that mediators with relevant information about the disputants are more likely to produce successful outcomes than those without such information. The higher the degree of relevant information a mediator has about the disputants, the higher is the likelihood Of mediation success. This finding reiterates the centrality of private information in explaining bargaining failures. Essay About Drawing On What You Have Learned About City RoadIf commitment problems exist or issues are perceived to be indivisible, war is still possible (Fearer 1995)_ ICC The reference is to Margaret Thatcher. The reference is to hunger strikes by the ARIA prisoners. Argentina does not back down, England Will fight and Will Win the war, as Englands military capabilities are far superior to that of Argentina. In addition, the 1_1_ S. Mediator emphasizes that the costs Of possible war for England are not wry high, as England has high resolve in the Falkland Islands crisis, and thus is Willing to bear the costs Of fighting. Cue that one Of the reasons Why there is no scholarly consensus regarding the effect of a mediators provision of information on the likelihood of peace is that not all kinds of information are able to reduce bargaining failures. Information provided by mediators should be relevant to bargaining failures, that is, it should pertain to the resolve and/ or military capabilities of the disputants. If we can measure a mediators ability to elicit such relevant information about the disputants, we may be able to effectively demonstrate how a mediators information about the disputants brings about peace. From this discussion, we can formulate the following hypothesis, which presents a more nuanced relationship between information provision strategies and mediation success than do the current predictions in the literature, Hypothesis I: Mediators that have relevant information about one of the disputing parties are more likely to be successful in using information provision strategies than those without relevant information. As the degree of relevant information a mediator has about the disputants increases, mediation success becomes more likely. Is a mediators bias an asset or liability for a editor who uses information provision strategies? Before we can provide an answer to this question, we need to address the ongoing debate in the literature about the relationship between mediator bias and mediation outcomes. A mediator is biased if its preferences are aligned With one party or the Other. A biased mediator cares not only for ending the hostilities but also for resolving the dispute in a particular way that is commensurate With its interests. Unbiased mediators, on the other hand, do not care about how an issue is resolved as long as peace is established. 12 Empirical and anecdotal evidence produce inconclusive results as to whether a biased mediator increases or decreases the likelihood of mediation success. Some scholars argue that biased mediation is detrimental to the success of mediation (Fisher 1995; Meek 2000; stubbles 1987; Young 1967). The proponents of this view argue that a mediator is more likely to be accepted and be more effective in persuading parties if it has no preference as to how a dispute is resolved. An unbiased mediator is likely to be successful because it is perceived to be fair and hence trusted by the disputants (Carnival and Pursuit 1392). To the extent that a mediator is untainted by any affinity with either of the disputants, a mediator is expected to be more effective in persuading the disputants to make concessions necessary to establish peace. A biased mediator, on the other hand, is unlikely to be trusted and its proposals are less likely to be accepted by the discovered party. While the proponents of impartiality perceive a mediators impartiality as the main source of its influence, the proponents of bias similarly contend that bias is a main source of mediators influence. Bias might actually increase a third partys ability to bring peace, as mediators are accepted by the spiting parties not because they are unbiased but because of their ability to influence and 12 Carnival and Radar (1996) make a theoretical distinction between what they call bias Of content and bias Of source characteristics. Bias Of content refers to a mediators favoring one disputant over the other in its proposal settlement, whereas the bias Of source characteristics refers to a mediators closer economic, political or cultural ties with one of the disputants. In this study, the way measure a mediators bias is closer to the bias of source characteristics than bias f content. Protect the interests of each party (Beets 1994; Creases and Pursuit 1985; Smith 1985: Wear and Laddered 1931). As bias contributes to a mediators capacity and desire to influence the outcome, a biased mediator should be preferred to an unbiased one. Carnival and Radar (1996) suggest that bias might add to the mediators ability to extract concessions from the favored party. A mediator may benefit from what Carnival and Radar call a cushioning effect. A mediator who needs to obtain concessions from a disputing party ought first to convince the disputant that he mediator has its interest at heart. If a mediator has close ties With one Of the disputants, it is easier for such a mediator to convince such a disputant that it is in the disputants interest to extend concessions to its antagonists. Similarly, Outfall (1982) argues that a mediator who is biased in favor of ones opponent can be advantageous, as the mediator can be expected to put pressure on its ally. Stephens (1388) suggests that one possible motivation for a disputant to accept mediation is the expectation that the mediator will convince the opponent to give concessions. The mispronunciations of the cushioning effect argument can be found in the cheap talk literature (Austin-Smith and Banks 2000; Calvert 1985; Myers 1998). The theory of cheap talk suggests that a mediators interests should be aligned with the receiver of the advice for the latter to believe the credibility of the message. A recent formal analysis of mediation outcomes by Kiddy (2003) explicates the logic of Outfall (1982) and Carnival and Radar (1996) further by addressing the mispronunciations to their argument. 13 Drawing upon the cheap talk and credible signals literatures, Kiddy (2003) argues that a mediator needs o be biased toward the receiver of the information in order to be able to convey information in a credible way. Kiddy (2003, 598) concludes that only a mediator who shares your policy preferences to some extent could be trusted to tell you that your opponent is likely to back down even in the absence of a significant concession. Similarly, it could be trusted if informs you that the adversary has high resolve and you should therefore give in. Therefore, biased mediators have an easier time in convincing their favored party to give concessions as the information they provide is considered credible by the latter. Kiddy (2003) armorial shows that if a mediator is unbiased, it is unlikely to have any credibility because it has an incentive to say anything that will minimize the probability of conflict. Similarly, a mediator who is against you cannot be trusted, either. If a mediator prefers a solution that is closer to the ideal point Of your opponent than yours, and if it believes that you will give in if you think that your opponent has high resolve, the mediator has a strong incentive to tell you that your opponent has high resolve even though it knows that is not the case. Only information provided by a mediator who shares your interest is credible. From Outfall (1982), Carnival and Radar (1996) and Kiddy (2003), we can derive the following hypothesis: Hypothesis 2: Mediators that are biased in favor of one of the disputants are more likely to be successful than unbiased mediators. The higher the degree of bias a mediator exhibits toward a disputant, the more likely is mediation success. The next section develops operational measures of a mediators information about the disputants and a mediators bias toward the disputants. This section is followed by a discussion of the specification of the econometric models designed o evaluate the above hypotheses and the findings of these models.
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Positive Research Accouting. Answer: Introduction This report contains all the details regarding article of positive research accounting. With the help of this article, writers, researchers and other viewers could easily evaluate the merits and demerits of positive accounting research. There are several fact, several theories and accounting concepts has been used to reflect the human behavior and their tendency to make decisions. In addition to this, there are several models and theories have been implementation of positive research accounting which is used by accountant for summarizing, classifying and recording of financial transactions. There are several theories and models such as hypothetical test and human decision making model have been used to provide standards outcomes for mitigating accounting and auditing problems. The main focus has been made on ontology and epistemology of positive accounting which is taken into consideration for assessing human behavior and their reciprocal behavior tendency. They key concept of this a rticle is to provide a clear understanding on the positive accounting research and its key factors such as human decision making, errors an mistakes and other conceptual framework. There are several set format and theories which establish cause and effect relation of humans and auditing functions. The structure of this report is consisted with several parts. It would start with research questions which will provide core of this whole report, Then after, a significant study has been prepared for summarization and classification of all the theories and models of positive accounting research (Brown, Preiato, and Tarca, 2014). Summary of article This article of positive account research has been prepared on the basis of human behavior and their behavior to eliminate possible problems and hurdles in accounting issues and reporting. There are several conflicts and accounting issues which have been faced by auditors and accountant. These different viewpoints and assumptions have aroused due to different human behavior of accountant and auditors in their accounting frameworks. There are several casual theory and comprehensive viewpoints which divulges that every accountant and auditors have different viewpoints and perception in preparing and reporting of financial statement. Positive ontology and epistemology have also been described in the mid of this article which depicts that human behavior and different cause and effect relation. It is observed that it is the major reasons which result into variation in human behavior, decisions and assumptions. All the data collected in this article is from qualitative research process on positive research accounting which is used to provide preliminary interpretation on positive accounting research and human decision. In addition to this, the main emphasis has been made on the various remarks and models which have been used by accountant and auditors for recording and classifying of financial information. After that article has reflected the Hypothetical test which is used to provide assumptions and justification for the qualitative data in positive accounting research. (Ahmed, Neel and Wang, 2013). There are several facts such as reciprocal behavior, Self interest theory and Positive ontology and epistemology which have been used to make effective interpretation of the qualitative data. For instance, reciprocal behavior provides how cause and effect relation exist in the accounting works of organizations. Self interest theory also suggests that if a person is doing work in the organizations then he would be more concerned about his own interest than interest of org anization. After that behavior of free will has also been discussed which provides that if accountants are not put under the control then they would follows different theories and models as per their choices? Gradually, it may result into contradiction in human behavior. As at the time of auditing of financial statement, auditors would find themselves hard to understand the concepts and theories which were taken by accountant to prepare financial statement of organizations. The self interest theory is also useful to determine the different perceptions and values and decision making criteria of two or more people in accounting works (Celestine and Maher, 2014). This article also provides that how accountant and auditors vary with their judgments when they are put under pressure. This theory is also justified on the basis of rational and personal behavior of accountants and auditors in positive accounting research (Waymire, 2014). It is given that cause and effect relation has been us ed and provided, if accountant are given more work to make effective level of classifying, recording and summarizing task under pressure then they would tend to complete that work within the less time limit. However, they will make mistakes and errors in their work when they are doing work under pressure (Brown, et al. 2014). Now it could be suggested that this article mainly focus on the different human behavior based on the different factors and circumstances (Everett, Neu, Rahaman and Maharaj, 2015). Research questions There are several questions have been taken on which this report has been made. How positive accounting practice could be said to be different from intellectual program? What are factors which could be considered by accountant in positive accounting research? What are the models and theories which have been used in positive accounting research? What is the effect of using ontology and epistemology in positive accounting research practice in positive accounting research? Theoretical frameworks There are several theoretical frameworks which are used to increase the effectiveness of positive accounting research such as hypothetical test, ontology and epistemology frameworks. These theories have been used to evaluate the human behavior and their cause and effect relation in positive accounting practice. This research has been prepared on the basis of various models and theoretical frameworks shown in this article (Engle and Hunton, 2015). As per the views of Everett, Neu, Rahaman and Maharaj, 2015 it is provided that positive accounting research practice helps accountant and auditors to mitigate possible conflicts in their accounting practice. Ideally the main conflict between accountant and auditors arouse due to the different assumptions and theories used by them. Therefore, it is required by all the accountant and auditors to adopt standard theoretical frameworks and models in preparing and reporting of financial statements. Humans had to face several problems due to conflict of their decisions and perceptions. The theoretical frameworks have been prepared on the behavior of free will, hypothetical test and cause and effect relation theory. In the given theory, it is evaluated that if behavior of free will is followed by all the auditors and accountant then they would end up with having different conflicts between humans. In addition to this, other models and frameworks which could be used by auditors and accountan t in this article are either in Americana or international which reflects standard models for gauging human behavior. There are other several basic concepts and theories in positive accounting theories such as reciprocal behavior and behavior of free will. In this article main focus in made on Darwins theory of evaluation which reflects qualitative assessment and measurement in positive research. This Darwins theory of evaluation could be bifurcated into following several parts. The first phase of Darwins theory of evaluation is related with collecting primary and secondary qualitative data. These collected data is deployed by Auditors other stakeholders to evaluate on what basis accountant has prepared financial statement (Dyckman and Zeff, 2014). In Darwins theory of evaluation, focus is made to identify type- 1 errors (Li, 2015). It is considered that Type-1 error is not possible to avoid for accountant as per followed realistic approach. It is observed that if auditor uses realistic model then it would result into basic level of errors (Type-1 errors) (Deegan, 2017). There are other several mode ls which have been used in positive accounting research practice such as Hypothetical test and ontology and epistemology (Slater, et al. 2014). Significant of positive accounting research There are several important factors which have been reflected in this research. This research focus on the core factors and human behavior in positive accounting research. The main significance of this report is to prepare deep understanding on positive accounting research and to evaluate the implication of positive accounting research in organization. This report reflects the main factors of human behavior and systematic frameworks which could be used for preparing financial statement of organizations. This research provides that there are several conflicts and accounting issues which have been faced by auditors and accountant. These different viewpoints and assumptions have resulted due to different human behavior of accountant and auditors in their accounting frameworks. There are other rational and personal practice in positive accounting research have been evaluated which reflects the human behavior and factors which influence accountant behaviors. (Guan, 2014). This positive ac counting research has been used to analyze the possible problems and hurdles which are faced by auditors and accountant while preparing accounting and auditing functions. In the end it would be inferred that behavior of free will should be handled by each and every humans in determined approach otherwise it may result into several conflicts to humans in their decision making process. Therefore, this research has focused on identifying the vulnerability of positive accounting research and how accountant could use this practice to make their work effective. Limitation of Positive accounting research This report has been completed on the basis of data and information shown in the given article. In addition to this, researcher has taken help form other books, article and web based data to evaluate the core aspect so the article. There are several hypothetical data has been taken in this article which has no basis to justify. However, hypothetical test has been done on these data to justify its relevance and reliability. There are various models and theories which provides the tendency of humans in decision making process. There is no possible escalations have been taken if there is find any variations in assumption taken on accountant works and other required factors (Smith, 2014). Moreover, ontology and epistemology theories are completely based on believes of free will which provides that there could be different results in the same work assigned to different people due to behavior of free will. It is provided that if accountants take their decisions based on the free will then it would surely result into conflict of judgments between accountant and auditors. This article does not contain brief overview on the human tendency and reciprocal behavior which could be used to justify the hypothesis test undertaken in this article. There are other several limitations e.g. reliability of data, assumption based frameworks and behavior of free will (Bertomeu, Darrough and Xue, 2017). Conclusion This article is consisted with several theories and methodologies which provides deep understanding on ontology and epistemology of positive accounting research. There are several theories and accounting standards which have been used in this article to evaluate accountant decision making process in positive accounting research. This theories and models are used to establish harmonization in accountant and auditors functions. It is observed that there are several errors and mistakes in reporting and accounting frameworks. Hypothetical test used in this article provides that in order to complete the theoretical prospectus of accountant behavior and their decision making process there is need to come up with some hypothetical data to justify the qualitative positive accounting research. There are interchangeable factors which are used in this article to establish cause and effect relation for determine accounting process of accountant. It is also evaluated that accountant and auditors face complexity in their working process duet he behavior of free will. Therefore, in the end it could be inferred test statistic under the null hypothesis is dependent upon auxiliary assumptions which is taken as limitation of this article. It is observed that if auditors and accountant work on taking less assumption and models then there will be fewer chances of mistakes and errors in their working process. References Ahmed, A.S., Neel, M. and Wang, D., 2013. Does mandatory adoption of IFRS improve accounting quality? Preliminary evidence.Contemporary Accounting Research,30(4), pp.1344-1372. Bertomeu, J., Darrough, M. and Xue, W., 2017. Optimal conservatism with earnings manipulation.Contemporary Accounting Research,34(1), pp.252-284. Brown, P., Preiato, J. and Tarca, A., 2014. Measuring country differences in enforcement of accounting standards: An audit and enforcement proxy.Journal of Business Finance Accounting,41(1-2), pp.1-52. Deegan, C., 2017. Twenty five years of social and environmental accounting research within Critical Perspectives of Accounting: Hits, misses and ways forward.Critical Perspectives on Accounting,43, pp.65-87. Dyckman, T.R. and Zeff, S.A., 2014. Some methodological deficiencies in empirical research articles in accounting.Accounting Horizons,28(3), pp.695-712. Engle, T.J. and Hunton, J.E., 2015. Retraction: The Effects of Small Monetary Incentives on Response Quality and Rates in the Positive Confirmation of Account Receivable Balances.AUDITING: A Journal of Practice Theory,34(3), pp.201-201. Everett, J., Neu, D., Rahaman, A.S. and Maharaj, G., 2015. Praxis, Doxa and research methods: Reconsidering critical accounting.Critical Perspectives on Accounting,32, pp.37-44. Fang, J., Haw, I.M., Yu, V. and Zhang, X., 2014. Positive externality of analyst coverage upon audit services: Evidence from China.Asia-Pacific Journal of Accounting Economics,21(2), pp.186-206. Guan, K., 2014. Corporate Growth, Audit Quality and Accounting Conservatism: Empirical Evidence from Public Companies in China.Journal of Accounting and Economics,5(005). Klemstine, C.F. and Maher, M.W., 2014.Management Accounting Research (RLE Accounting): A Review and Annotated Bibliography. Routledge. Li, X., 2015. Accounting conservatism and the cost of capital: An international analysis.Journal of Business Finance Accounting,42(5-6), pp.555-582. Slater, R.A., Koren, S., Ramot, Y., Buchs, A. and Rapoport, M.J., 2014. Interpreting the results of the Semmes?Weinstein monofilament test: accounting for false?positive answers in the international consensus on the diabetic foot protocol by a new model.Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews,30(1), pp.77-80. Smith, M., 2014.Research methods in accounting. Sage. Waymire, G.B., 2014. Neuroscience and ultimate causation in accounting research.The Accounting Review,89(6), pp.2011-2019.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
What Is True Love? Rough Draft Brooke Gladstone 5/17/2000 Period #3 What is true love? The quality of true love is highly debated among different people. Some people believe true love relies on rules or that it simply does not exist. However, true love is an unconditional love between two people, when two people love each other for who they are. In Charles Dickens' novel Great Expectations there are many different situations where true love become relevant. First of all, there is a gentle giant by the name of Joe is Great Expectations. He is Pip's brother-in-law. Joe is a very peaceful man, but by looking at him you would be scared. He is a very large man and the blacksmith of the town. In the beginning of the book he is married to Mrs. Joe Gargery (Pip's sister). Joe loves Mrs. Joe very much, and in the book he states that she is a, ?Fine figure of a woman,? (Dickens, pp. ). In a scene in the novel he discusses with Pip how he is happy with his life, but on the opposite Mrs. Joe is not exactly on the same term. She is very unhappy with her life, and she believes that she ?deserves? better than Joe, or a blacksmith. Dickens' portrays Mrs. Joe as a bitter woman, but the audience can see the love she has for Joe, even if she is not satisfied with her marriage to Joe. At a later time in the book Mrs. Joe sadly passes away, and you can feel the sadness Joe has towards her death. A few years later he marries Biddy. Biddy has always been around the family to help in the house while Mrs. Joe was sick. The friendship between Joe and Biddy eventually became a loving relationship and Joe purposed to her. Obviously Joe may had loved Mrs. Joe very dearly, but he shortly recovered from his lost and married Biddy. Mr. Pocket, Pip's roommate, is a friendly man whom Pip meets while he moves to London. Mr. Pocket is very proper and teaches Pip about posture, manners, and eating habits. Mr. Pocket proposes to a lady named Clara. Pocket describes Clara as a gentle, kind lady who he is in love with. He talks of her much in Pip and his conversations. It seems as if he loves her very much, but their relationship has just begun and their love is still growing towards each other. The audience may not feel the love between the two as much as other relationships. On the other hand, Miss Havasham's relationship with her fiancee was horrid. It turned out to be a terrible nightmare. Compeyson was Miss Havasham's fiancee who left her at the altar. Miss Havasham dreads this day in the novel. Pip visits Satis House and she is wearing her wedding dress, she has the wedding cake on the dining room table, and the clock is stopped at the time she was left at the altar. It is obvious that she loved Compeyson very much, but doing what he did she now hates men. Because of this she raises Estella to hate men and torture them. Estella tells Pip later in the book how she wouldn't want to marry Pip because she doesn't want to hurt him. Finally, Pip's relationship with Estella. Although there is no such thing, Pip loved Estella very much. Above true love is described as an unconditional love between two people, so according to that definition this relationship would not be considered true love. Pip has a very strong and indescribable love towards Estella, but the passion is not returned. Estella plays with Pip as if he is a yo-yo. One moment she mentions something that may make Pip believe that she does love him, and another she is upset with him for thinking she admired him. In conclusion, true love is perceived many different ways. In the novel Great Expectations there are many different relationships which display different levels of love and romance. There is a relationship where one of the members passed away, another where the relationship is so young the love has not blossomed and two relationships where the love is not returned from the other member of the relationship. All in all, Charles Dickens never places a relationship where true love is evident. Bibliography none Book Reports
Sunday, November 24, 2019
THE RADIO ADVANTAGE Between 1993 and 2002 I wrote and broadcast over one hundred radio pieces for CBC (the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Canadas public radio network). Fifty of those were humour, another fifty, scripts for conversations about folklore. Three were 12-minute features with voice and recorded sound, and fifteen were pieces about shepherding written as letters to the shows host. Ã Ã Ã Writing for voice is different from writing for print. Some things you simply cant say on air. For example, an early piece concerned the varied liaisons among my angora rabbits. Angora rabbits is difficult to say naturally and clearly. The first RA is the sound of RAW, the second the RA in RAT. On air I said ANGORA BUNNIES instead.Ã Ã Ã I learned two kinds of timing in radio. My first lesson was to keep to time, write succinctly, and condense every piece to 550-650 words. Anything else either ran over my five-to-seven minutes or had to be read too quickly to sound polished. Ã Ã Ã My se cond lesson was vocal timing. When you read aloud, breath matters. A sentence had to be short enough to be read aloud easily in one breath, or else break naturally for a breath. (I also learned not to pop my ps or hiss my ss on the microphone!)Ã Ã Ã I had to use intonation to compensate for missing visual cues, and allow pauses for the listener to react to something funny. Essentially, I learned to perform for an unseen and unheard audience. (Even if the producer laughed as I read, I couldnt hear her from the sound studio.) Ã Ã Ã This taught me to deliver humour on trust, believing that Id left room for a laugh or a groan in the right places. Writing humour for the page is also a matter of trust Ã¢â¬â we dont see our readers immediate reactions. When Id done thirty or so short pieces of humour, and had had feedback from listeners, I had a well-developed sense of comic timing. Ã Ã Ã
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Total Operating Cost - Essay Example Population, Revenue Ton, Ton-Mile load factor, capacity, assets and Investments and Special Funds are all significant at Ã ±= 0.05 level of significance. Population, Revenue Ton, and Investments and Special Funds affect total operation cost positively while Ton-Mile load factor, capacity, and assets seem to affect the total operation cost negatively. Discussion and conclusion Capacity, Assets, Daily Flight Time, and Flight Length in miles were suspected to be the main variables that determine total operating costs. The correlation and linear regression, however, indicate that only capacity and assets have a significant effect on the total operating cost. When studied together with other variables, Daily Flight Time and Flight Length in miles do not seem to have a significant effect on operation cost. To further investigate if the two variables have an effect on the operation cost, a marginalized study should be conducted. There is a negative linear relationship between total operati on cost and capacity and speed of the plane. The relationship is a negative one as shown in Figures 1 and 2 in the appendices. The ANOVA results in Table 5 in the Appendices indicate that there is at least one variable that has an effect on operation cost. The linear regression model, however, proves this by indicating that Population, Revenue Ton, Ton-Mile load factor, capacity, assets and Investments, and Special Funds are all significant. The limitations of these findings should be noted. Only linear relationships were explored.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Summary - Essay Example Theorists expected the opposite to happen i.e. they expected the wealth gap between countries to reduce as a result of technological exchange and globalization. But the wealth gap increased because the rich in the poor countries invested their money in richer countries for security, thus making the poor countries poorer. The rich in any society benefit from new technology the most because of their capacity to absorb the risks it entails. Likewise, richer countries benefit more from technological development compared to poor countries, most of which have a higher rate of population growth than the rate of economic development. Although the wealth gap between the rich and the poor countries has overall increased ever since the Industrial Revolution, yet people generally enjoy a better lifestyle than people did in the past. The human development index computed by the United Nations suggests that from 1970 to 2010, almost all countries have experienced improvement and greater equality wi ll bring further improvement in the future. The vast expanse of the Amazon Forest sustains many indigenous cultures and 20% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s flora and fauna. The Amazon Forest reduces global warming and contributes to moisture in the atmosphere. The reduction in rainfall caused by global warming will endanger the Amazon Forest. Human intervention has caused many tropical forests as well as many Amazon forests to disappear. The hardwood trees in large number in the Amazon forest are very desirable for domestic and commercial purposes which has led to rapid cutting off of the trees. Not only the depletion of forests in Asia and Africa has increased the load for the Amazon forest, but also the Amazon Development Agency in Brazil has encouraged cattle ranching to facilitate fast-food restaurant business. Although the rapidly reducing land has endangered the indigenous tribes and their traditional economies, yet the idea of
Monday, November 18, 2019
Leadership and Management in Nursing - Essay Example Our nursing values are based on passion, respect, integrity, and on delivering the best healthcare services. Based on the above mission, vision, and values of our organization and of the nursing department, this paper shall now analyse such elements and discuss the extent to which these values are reflected in the nursing management and leadership of the hospital. The vision of the organization is to add years of healthy life to the people of Singapore. This vision is common to other health care organizations. This vision statement was able to capture the overall purpose of the organization. Vision statements of healthcare organizations present hopes for the future (Williamson, 1997). They are goals for the long-term and are based on general goals which the organization seeks to gradually obtain through the implementation of more specific objectives. This vision presents what the organization seeks to become as it now seeks to fulfil its mission. In the case of the hospital, it presents its larger goal and realization through its vision of seeking a longer life for the people of Singapore. It is also an inspirational and challenging statement. It presents a lofty and seemingly unobtainable goal, and it cannot stand alone without a more specific set of goals. The mission statements for the organization are closely linked to the organizationÃ¢â ¬â¢s vision. The mission statement for the organization is more specific in attaining and reaching the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s end goal. It specifies its nature as an organization Ã¢â¬â that of building tradition; reaching out to the community; doing best to serve, care and heal; and of aiming for excellence in cost effective healthcare education and research. Mission statements for the organization are laid out in order to specify the products and services offered by the organization (Swayne, Ginter, & Duncan, 2006). Some hospitals and